Statement of mineral resources and mineral reserves
Sibanye’s approach to reporting Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves is to ensure integrity and consistency in compliance with public and internal regulatory codes, and to inform all stakeholders of the status of the Group’s fundamental asset base. We also aim to report on information that is rated important for disclosure through a level of detail required for materiality, transparency and competency in reporting.
This section is a condensed overview of the Sibanye Gold Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Supplement 2014. The supplement contains a comprehensive review of our Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves as at 31 December 2014, which outlines in detail the location, geology, mining, processing, operational statistics and changes at each of Sibanye’s mining operations. The statement of 31 December 2014 outlines the Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves at each of our operating mines and growth projects, and compares to the last full declaration made as at 31 December 2013, and therefore includes a 12-month production depletion period. The Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are underpinned by appropriate mineral resource management processes and protocols that ensure adequate corporate governance.
The commodity prices used for the mineral reserve declaration are in accordance with the SEC guidelines and approximate the historic two- to three-year average commodity prices. As a result, a gold price of R420 000/kg and a uranium price of US$56/lb has been used. The Mineral Resources were declared at a premium of 10% over the mineral reserve metal price.
Key aspects that impacted the 31 December 2014 Statement of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are summarised below:
The Group gold Mineral Reserves of 28.4Moz were 13% below the Mineral Reserves restated in June 2014 after the aquisition of Cooke and Wits Gold.
- Economically extractable gold Mineral Reserves from Beatrix, Driefontein, Kloof and Cooke have increased by 12% to 19.9Moz (net of 1.7Moz depleted from mining in 2014). The gold Mineral Resources from the current operations have decreased by 2% to 78.7Moz.
- Underground gold Mineral Reserves from Beatrix, Driefontein and Kloof increased by 2.3Moz, net of production depletion, following the successful conclusion of feasibility studies on various organic growth projects at the operations.
- The increase in gold Mineral Reserves is primarily a result of an additional 1.7Moz of gold Mineral Reserves being declared at the Driefontein 5 and Kloof 4 shafts, following the completion of pre-feasibility studies (PFSs) on below infrastructure “drop-down projects”. Development of these brownfield projects will substantially enhance the life of these key operations. Definitive Feasibility Studies (DFSs) for these projects are in progress and will be completed during 2015.
- An additional 1.0Moz from so-called “secondary reefs” and “white areas” were also declared at the Driefontein and Kloof operations. Studies to bring more of these potential Mineral Resources to account are ongoing.
- A maiden gold Mineral Resource of 54.1Mt at an average grade of 5.1g/t (8.9Moz) at the recently acquired Burnstone project has been declared.
- The geological model at the Burnstone Project has been significantly revised after extensive re-logging of existing surface boreholes, combined with additional information from infill drilling and a thorough review of all data. The revised model is consistent with the characteristics of similar ore bodies in the East Rand Basin, affording greater confidence in the interpretation and underpinning the gold Mineral Resource estimate.
- Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves at the WRTRP remain largely unchanged year-on-year. This project is currently the subject of a DFS that will be completed during the March 2015 quarter.
- Since acquiring Wits Gold SOFS Projects in May 2014, we have thoroughly reviewed the geology and LoM models of the Beisa North and South, Bloemhoek, De Bron-Merriespruit, Hakkies and Robijn projects in the Southern Free State goldfields and re-estimated the Mineral Resources in accordance with the Group’s protocols and procedures.
- At the De Bron-Merriespruit project, the application of our resource estimation protocols and procedures resulted in gold Mineral Resources declining from 10.9 Moz to 4.0Moz. Gold Mineral Reserves also declined from 3.1Moz to 2.1Moz. The gold Mineral Reserves for the De Bron- Merriespruit project were derived from the original feasibility study previously conducted by Royal HaskoningDHV in 2013 (with updated Resource model and modifiers). During 2015, we intend to undertake a full review of this feasibility study with a view to optimising any potential synergies with the Beatrix operations.
- New geological models, incorporating borehole data from Wits Gold and Beatrix have resulted in a complete revision of the geological model for the Bloemhoek project. Together with the application of our Mineral Resource estimation protocols and higher cut-off grades. This has resulted in gold Mineral Resources decreasing from 14.0Moz to 4.3Moz. The Group is reviewing the economic viability of accessing part of the Bloemhoek Mineral Resource through the existing Beatrix underground infrastructure. No gold Mineral Reserves will be declared on the Bloemhoek project until these studies have been completed.
- Uranium production from Cooke continued uninterrupted from June 2014 under our management. The additional information derived during mining, combined with revised uranium Mineral Resource estimates resulted in uranium Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves increasing at the Cooke 1, 2 and 3 operations. At Cooke 4, uranium Mineral Reserves were negatively impacted by reduced ORD planning arising from the Section 189 process and the inclusion of additional gold reserves from the Middle Elsburg mining area. This will be reconsidered subject to ongoing operational profitability.
- The uranium Mineral Resources contained at Beatrix’s Beisa project increased marginally to 27.0Mlb (25.7Mlb). The application of our Mineral Resource estimation and declaration protocols resulted in a decrease in the uranium Mineral Resource at the Beisa North Project from 47.8Mlb to 35.4Mlb.
All stated Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are net of 12 months production depletion with the post-acquisition declaration totals as at 31 December 2013, where appropriate, also tabulated for an appraised comparison.
|Mineral Resources||Mineral Reserves|
|31 Dec 2014||31 Dec 2013||31 Dec 2014||31 Dec 2013|
|Measured AI||18.5||6.4||3.792||3.092||Proved AI||13.0||4.1||1.706||1.836|
|Indicated AI||32.0||5.2||5.332||4.399||Probable AI||14.0||4.2||1.892||1.706|
|Total AI||50.5||5.6||9.128||8.058||Total AI||27.0||4.1||3.598||3.543|
|Indicated BI2||4.2||4.9||0.660||1.119||Probable BI2||–||–||–||–|
|Beatrix – total underground||54.7||5.6||9.788||9.177||Beatrix – total underground||27.0||4.1||3.598||3.543|
COOKE 1, 2 AND 3
COOKE 1, 2 AND 3
|Measured AI||6.5||10.8||2.243||5.772||Proved AI||6.4||5.0||1.035||0.830|
|Indicated AI||26.9||6.9||5.991||3.529||Probable AI||0.7||5.6||0.122||0.380|
|Cooke 1, 2 and 3 – total underground||39.4||7.4||9.334||11.202||Cooke 1, 2 and 3 – total underground||7.1||5.1||1.157||1.210|
|Measured AI||5.0||5.8||0.932||0.411||Proved AI||3.7||4.3||0.520||0.132|
|Indicated AI||7.9||6.6||1.668||3.804||Probable AI||1.1||4.5||0.164||0.497|
|Total AI||15.5||6.3||3.142||7.785||Total AI||4.9||4.4||0.685||0.629|
|Indicated BI3||40.7||3.1||3.998||Probable BI3||–||–||–||–|
|Cooke 4 – total underground||56.2||4.0||7.140||7.785||Cooke 4 – total underground||4.9||4.4||0.685||0.629|
|Measured AI||21.5||11.9||8.229||7.542||Proved AI||12.1||7.0||2.716||2.467|
|Indicated AI||10.5||12.1||4.088||3.351||Probable AI||14.4||7.3||3.387||3.440|
|Total AI||33.1||12.1||12.867||11.208||Total AI||26.6||7.1||6.103||5.907|
|Indicated BI4||29.5||10.2||9.684||9.694||Probable BI4||5.5||6.3||1.126||–|
|Total BI4||30.1||10.2||9.888||9.895||Total BI4||5.5||6.3||1.126||–|
|Driefontein – total underground||63.2||11.2||22.755||21.103||Driefontein – total underground||32.1||7.0||7.228||5.907|
|Measured AI||20.7||14.5||9.618||8.636||Proved AI||11.3||8.1||2.932||3.599|
|Indicated AI||1.9||12.6||0.775||2.232||Probable AI||12.8||7.9||3.243||2.178|
|Total AI||22.6||14.3||10.393||10.868||Total AI||24.1||8.0||6.175||5.777|
|Indicated BI5||19.2||13.8||8.538||8.983||Probable BI5||2.1||7.9||0.532||–|
|Total BI5||38.1||15.3||18.713||19.264||Total BI5||2.1||7.9||0.532||–|
|Kloof – total underground||60.7||14.9||29.106||30.132||Kloof – total underground||26.2||8.0||6.706||5.777|
|Operations – total underground||274.2||8.9||78.124||79.398||Operations – total underground||97.2||6.2||19.374||17.065|
|Surface Rock Dumps (SRD) and Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF)||Surface Rock Dumps (SRD) and Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF)|
|Beatrix (Indicated)||6.2||0.4||0.071||0.134||Beatrix (Probable)||6.2||0.4||0.071||0.088|
|Randfontein surface (Measured)||7.3||0.4||0.086||0.200||Randfontein surface (Proved)||7.3||0.4||0.086||0.190|
|Randfontein surface (Indicated)||2.2||0.4||0.028||0.072||Randfontein surface (Probable)||2.2||0.4||0.028||0.040|
|Randfontein surface (Inferred)||–||–||–||0.011|
|Driefontein (Indicated)||6.8||0.6||0.125||0.150||Driefontein (Probable)||6.8||0.6||0.125||0.150|
|Kloof (Indicated)||13.1||0.5||0.223||0.246||Kloof (Probable)||10.3||0.6||0.194||0.246|
|Operations – total surface (SRD and TSF)||35.5||0.5||0.533||0.813||Operations – total surface (SRD and TSF)||32.7||0.5||0.504||0.715|
|Total operations (Incl. SRD and TSF – Excl. Projects)||Total Operations (Incl. SRD and TSF – Excl. Projects)|
|Operations – total (Incl. SRD and TSF)||309.7||7.9||78.657||80.211||Operations – total (Incl. SRD and TSF)||129.9||4.8||19.878||17.780|
|Beisa North – total underground||14.8||3.4||1.619||1.546||Beisa North – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|Bloemhoek – total underground||28.3||4.7||4.297||14.000||Bloemhoek – total underground||–||–||–||5.400|
|Burnstone – total underground||54.1||5.1||8.890||–||Burnstone – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|De Bron-Merriespruit – total underground||28.3||4.4||4.022||10.900||De Bron-Merriespruit – total underground||17.4||3.7||2.088||3.100|
HAKKIES AND ROBIJN9
HAKKIES AND ROBIJN9
|Hakkies and Robijn – total underground||–||–||–||15.600||Hakkies and Robijn – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|Projects – total underground||125.5||4.7||18.828||42.046||Projects – total underground||17.4||3.7||2.088||8.500|
|Driefontein (Measured)||166.4||0.3||1.805||1.786||Driefontein (Proved)||–||–||–||–|
|Driefontein (Indicated)||–||–||–||–||Driefontein (Probable)||166.4||0.3||1.805||1.786|
|Kloof (Measured)||262.2||0.3||2.253||2.236||Kloof (Proved)||–||–||–||–|
|Kloof (Indicated)||–||–||–||–||Kloof (Probable)||262.2||0.3||2.253||2.236|
|Cooke (Measured)||228.1||0.3||1.876||1.930||Cooke (Proved)||–||–||–||–|
|Cooke (Indicated)||52.3||0.3||0.524||0.524||Cooke (Probable)||280.4||0.3||2.401||2.400|
|WRTRP – total surface||709.0||0.3||6.459||6.475||WRTRP – total surface||709.0||0.3||6.459||6.422|
|Projects – total underground and surface||834.5||0.9||25.287||48.521||Projects – total underground and surface||726.4||0.4||8.547||14.922|
|Grand total – underground and surface||1144.2||2.8||103.944||128.733||Grand total – underground and surface||856.3||1.0||28.425||32.702|
- Al: Above Infrastructure; Bl: Below Infrastructure. Mineral Resources are inclusive of Mineral Reserves. All tons (t) relate to metric units. Rounding-off of figures may result in minor computational discrepancies, where this happens it is not deemed significant.
- Cut-off grades have been calculated in accordance with the SEC Guidelines and approximate the historic two to three year average commodity prices. Mineral Resources were declared at a premium of 10% over the Mineral Reserve metal price. Gold Mineral Resources were determined at R460,000/kg and the Gold Mineral Reserves at R420,000/kg.
- 1 Managed, unless otherwise stated;
- 2 Beatrix Indicated Mineral Resources BI refers to material below 26 level (1,341 mbs);
- 3 Cooke 4 Indicated Mineral Resources BI refers to material within Cooke 4 Prospecting Right (Zuurbekom);
- 4 Driefontein Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources and Probable Mineral Reserves BI refers to material below 50 level (3,300 mbs);
- 5 Kloof Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources and Probable Mineral Reserves BI refers to material below 45 level (3,347 mbs);
- 6 The 2013 Mineral Resource at Beisa North is based on a Technical Report National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report, in accordance with Form 43-101F1 on behalf of Wits Gold, as compiled by ExplorMine Consultants on 30 June 2009. The Competent Persons who prepared the statement were Andre Deiss BSc (Hons), Pr.Sci.Nat (Consulting Geologist), and Bill Northrop BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD, GDE, Pr.Sci.Nat., FGSSA, FSAIMM (Consulting Geostatistician) and Garth Mitchell BSc (Hons), BCom, Pr.Sci.Nat., MSAIMM, MGSSA (Consulting Geologist);
- 7 The 2013 Bloemhoek Project Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are based on a Technical Report National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report, in accordance with Form 43-101F1 on behalf of Wits Gold, compiled by Turnberry Projects (Pty) Ltd in September 2009. The Qualified Persons for the preparation of this pre-feasibility study report were Gordon Cunningham and Timothy Spindler;
- 8 The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the De Bron-Merriespruit Project Mineral Reserves as at 20 August 2013, was Mr JHK Hudson, Principal Engineer employed by Royal HaskoningDHV. The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the De Bron-Merriespruit Project gold Mineral Resources as at 20 August 2013, was Mr G Gilchrist, BSc (Hons) Geology, MGSSA, Pr.Sci.Nat. The gold Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves at this project were determined at a cut-off of 300cm.g/t. This 2013 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve statement was declared by Wits Gold and was deemed compliant with the SAMREC Code; and
- 9 The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the Hakkies & Robijn Projects Mineral Resources as at 6 September 2013, was Mr M Burnett, Principal Consultant at Snowden. The total gold 2013 Mineral Resources at these projects were determined at a cut-off of 300cm.g/t. This 2013 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve statement as declared by Wits Gold was deemed compliant with the SAMREC Code.
|Mineral Resources||Mineral Reserves|
|31 Dec 2014||31 Dec 2013||31 Dec 2014||31 Dec 2013|
|Measured AI||3.6||1.086||8.548||–||Proved AI||–||–||–||–|
|Indicated AI||7.8||1.069||18.330||13.867||Probable AI||–||–||–||–|
|Beatrix (Beisa) – total underground||11.4||1.074||26.968||25.658||Beatrix (Beisa) – total underground||–||–||–||–|
COOKE 1, 2 AND 3
COOKE 1, 2 AND 3
|Measured AI||2.2||0.512||2.457||17.828||Proved AI||2.6||0.322||1.814||0.920|
|Indicated AI||7.5||0.598||9.871||10.755||Probable AI||0.2||0.408||0.187||0.930|
|Cooke 1, 2 and 3 – total underground||9.7||0.579||12.328||30.785||Cooke 1, 2 and 3 – total underground||2.8||0.329||2.001||1.850|
|Measured AI||2.2||0.666||3.240||4.174||Proved AI||1.5||0.475||1.574||1.209|
|Indicated AI||4.9||0.563||6.117||6.211||Probable AI||0.3||0.345||0.252||2.357|
|Total AI||8.3||0.553||10.073||20.075||Total AI||1.8||0.452||1.826||3.566|
|Indicated BI2||35.9||0.555||43.984||–||Probable BI||–||–||–||–|
|Cooke 4 – total underground||44.2||0.555||54.057||20.075||Cooke 4 – total underground||1.8||0.452||1.826||3.566|
|Operations – total underground||65.2||0.649||93.353||76.519||Operations – total underground||4.6||0.378||3.827||5.416|
BEISA NORTH 3
|Beisa North – total underground||14.8||1.084||35.373||47.840||Beisa North – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|Bloemhoek – total underground||–||–||–||20.900||Bloemhoek – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|De Bron-Merriespruit – total underground||–||–||–||12.800||De Bron-Merriespruit – total underground||–||–||–||–|
HAKKIES & ROBIJN6
HAKKIES & ROBIJN6
|Hakkies and Robijn – total underground||–||–||–||26.300||Hakkies and Robijn – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|Projects – total underground||14.8||1.084||35.373||107.840||Projects – total underground||–||–||–||–|
|Driefontein (indicated)||–||–||–||–||Driefontein (probable)||158.2||0.064||22.326||21.764|
|Kloof (measured)||262.2||0.038||22.071||21.391||Kloof (proved)||–||–||–||–|
|Kloof (indicated)||–||–||–||–||Kloof (probable)||262.2||0.038||22.071||21.391|
|Cooke (measured)||228.1||0.088||44.320||44.840||Cooke (proved)||–||–||–||44.320|
|Cooke (indicated)||52.3||0.086||9.936||9.936||Cooke (probable)||280.4||0.088||54.256||9.936|
|Projects – total surface||700.8||0.064||98.653||97.931||Projects – total surface||700.8||0.064||98.653||97.411|
|Projects – total underground and surface||715.6||0.085||134.026||205.771||Projects – total underground and surface||700.8||0.064||98.653||97.411|
|Grand total – underground and surface||780.8||0.132||227.379||282.290||Grand total – underground and surface||705.4||0.066||102.480||102.827|
- Al: Above Infrastructure. All tons (t) relate to metric units. Mineral resources are inclusive of Mineral Reserves. Rounding-off of figures may result in minor computational discrepancies, where this happens it is not deemed significant. For Uranium Mineral Reserves a long-term contract price of R1,110/kg was used.
- 1 Managed, unless otherwise stated;
- 2 Cooke 123 Indicated Mineral Resources BI refers to material within Cooke Prospecting Right (Zuurbekom);
- 3 The 2013 Mineral Resource at Beisa North is based on a Technical Report National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report, in accordance with Form 43-101F1 on behalf of Wits Gold, as compiled by ExplorMine Consultants on 30 June 2009. The Qualified Competent Persons who prepared the statement were Andre Deiss BSc (Hons), Pr.Sci.Nat (Consulting Geologist), and Bill Northrop BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD, GDE, Pr.Sci.Nat., FGSSA, FSAIMM (Consulting Geostatistician) and Garth Mitchell BSc (Hons), BCom, Pr.Sci.Nat., MSAIMM, MGSSA (Consulting Geologist). A U3O8 cut-off of 50 cm.kg/t has been applied to determine the Uranium Mineral Resources;
- 4 The 2013 Bloemhoek Project Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are based on a Technical Report National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report, in accordance with Form 43-101F1 on behalf of Wits Gold, compiled by Turnberry Projects (Pty) Ltd in September 2009. The Qualified Persons for the preparation of this Pre-Feasibility Study report were Gordon Cunningham and Timothy Spindler;
- 5 The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the De Bron-Merriespruit Project Mineral Reserves as at 20 August 2013, was Mr JHK Hudson, Principal Engineer employed by Royal HaskoningDHV. The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the De Bron-Merriespruit Project gold Mineral Resources as at 20 August 2013, was Mr G Gilchrist, BSc (Hons) Geology, MGSSA, Pr.Sci.Nat. This 2013 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve statement was declared by Wits Gold and was deemed compliant with the SAMREC Code; and
- 6 The Competent Person designated in terms of SAMREC, who took responsibility for the reporting of the Hakkies and Robijn Projects Mineral Resources as at 6 September 2013, was Mr M Burnett, Principal Consultant at Snowden. This 2013 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve statement as declared by Wits Gold was deemed compliant with the SAMREC Code.
|LoM 31 December 2013||128.733|
|Changes in estimation models at operations||4.177|
|Changes in geology structure at operations||2.451|
|Changes in Mineral Resource modelling at operations||(0.847)|
|Changes in paylimits primarily at Cooke||(9.271)|
|Beisa North project changes based on new data and paylimit||0.073|
|Bloemhoek project changes in geology facies and paylimit||(9.703)|
|De Bron-Merriespruit project changes in paylimit||(6.878)|
|Cooke additions (Zuurbekom)||3.980|
|Uneconomic surface sources at Rand Surface Operations (RSO)||(0.121)|
|Changes in TSFs during 2014||(0.017)|
|Burnstone project Maiden Mineral Resources||8.890|
|Hakkies and Robijn projects do not meet base-case paylimit||(15.600)|
|LoM 31 December 2014||103.944|
|LoM 31 December 2013||32.702|
|Changes in geology structure at operations||(0.018)|
|Changes in estimation models at operations||0.806|
|Inclusion of additional secondary reefs at Driefontein and Kloof||0.333|
|White areas and general additions primarily at Kloof due to tail management following the inclusion of the drop-down project and at Beatrix West Section due to cost rationalisation||0.645|
|Driefontein 5 shaft drop-down project included following the completion of a PFS in 2014||1.126|
|Kloof 4 shaft drop-down project included down following the completion of a PFS in 2014||0.532|
|Deposition to active TSFs which formed part of the WRTRP during 2014||0.037|
|Bloemhoek project excluded based on revised geology and evaluation models||(5.400)|
|Selective evaluation method applied to De Bron-Merriespruit project along with updated modifiers and cost estimates||(1.012)|
|Uneconomic surface sources at Rand Surface Operations (RSO)||(0.051)|
|Technical Factors [Mine Call Factor (MCF), % waste mining, etc]||0.448|
|LoM 31 December 2014||28.425|
|LoM 31 December 2013||282.290|
|Changes in geology structure||1.099|
|Changes in estimators||9.557|
|Changes in paylimit||(49.972)|
|Projects excluded (De Bron-Merriespruit, Bloemhoek and Hakkies)||(60.000)|
|Deposition to active TSFs which formed part of the WRTRP during 2014||0.722|
|LoM 31 December 2014||227.379|
|LoM 31 December 2013||102.827|
|Changes in Mineral Resource models||(0.594)|
|Inclusion of additional areas at Cooke 3 following revised geological model||0.926|
|Exclusions at Cooke 4 due to a change in mining ratio between Middle Elsburg and Upper Elsburg||(1.794)|
|Deposition to active TSFs which formed part of the WRTRP during 2014||1.242|
|Technical Factors (MCF, % waste mining, etc)||0.091|
|LoM 31 December 2014||102.480|
ABRIDGED REVIEW PER OPERATION:
The Beatrix Operation is a low-cost, high productivity asset that is positioned for medium to long term life of mine (LoM), with gold Mineral Resources of approximately 9.9Moz. Gold Mineral Reserves increased by 1% net of production depletion to 3.7Moz in 2014. The uranium Mineral Resource declared for the Beisa Reef is marginally higher than last year at 27.0Mlb (2013: 25.7Mlb) following additional Mineral Resource conversion drilling completed in 2014. The Beatrix LoM extends to 2028.
The Driefontein Operation is a high-yield, medium to long-term operation with Mineral Resources of 22.9Moz and Mineral Reserves of 7.4Moz, with a LoM extending to 2033. The Mineral Reserves increased by 21% net of depletion from the previous year, mainly due to the successful conclusion of a PFS of the below infrastructure, drop-down project at Driefontein 5 shaft. A further decrease in paylimits has resulted in additional economically mineable secondary reefs and white areas previously excluded.
SURFACE OPERATIONS – DRIEFONTEIN
The underground production is supplemented by a low-cost surface operation treating historical rock dumps, which is now estimated at 0.1Moz.
The Kloof Operation is a high-yield medium to long-term operation, with Mineral Resources of 29.3Moz and Mineral Reserves of 6.9Moz. The current LoM is estimated to extend to 2033. The Mineral Reserves increased by 24% post-production depletion from the previous year, mainly as a result of the successful conclusion of a PFS of the drop-down project at Kloof 4 shaft, as well as 0.9Moz added from secondary reefs and white areas.
SURFACE OPERATIONS – KLOOF
The underground production is also supplemented by a low-cost surface operation treating historical rock dumps, of which the Mineral Reserve is now estimated at 0.2Moz.
COOKE (COOKE 1, 2 AND 3, COOKE 4 AND RANDFONTEIN SURFACE)
The newly acquired Cooke Operation is a low- cost, short- to medium-term asset, producing both gold and uranium. The current LoM is estimated to extend to 2025. The operation has gold Mineral Resources of approximately 16.6Moz and gold Mineral Reserves of 2.0Moz. Uranium Mineral Resources at the operation are 66.4Mlb and the uranium Mineral Reserves 3.8Mlb. The gold and uranium Mineral Reserves have decreased year-on-year mainly due to a 25% increase in the paylimit, as well as the suspension of the mechanised mining section at Cooke 1.
SURFACE OPERATIONS – COOKE
The underground production is supplemented by a low-cost surface operation treating historical tailings storage facilities (gold Mineral Reserves estimated at 0.1Moz).
ABRIDGED REVIEW PER PROJECT:
The Burnstone Project is a shallow project currently undergoing a feasibility study. We have restated the geology and estimation models of the operation, and have declared a maiden gold Mineral Resource of 54.1Mt at an average grade of 5.1g/t for 8.9Moz. The feasibility study, based on the new models, is scheduled for completion in 2015.
WEST RAND TAILINGS RETREATMENT PROJECT
The WRTRP will process the historical tailings storage facilities of the Driefontein, Kloof and Cooke operations for gold and uranium. The project is currently in DFS stage, which is expected to be concluded in the quarter ended 31 March 2015. The WRTRP has an estimated gold and uranium mineral reserve of 6.5Moz and 98.7Mlb respectively.
DE BRON-MERRIESPRUIT PROJECT
The De Bron-Merriespruit project is a potential shallow, high-volume, low-cost project with possible synergies to the Beatrix Operation. The geology and estimation models of this project were confirmed during 2014. The DFS conducted by Royal HaskoningDHV in 2013 was reviewed, and certain assumptions in the model modified in line with our historical benchmark numbers. The review resulted in the gold Mineral Resources being restated to 4.0Moz (2013: 10.9Moz) and the gold Mineral Reserves being reduced to 2.1Moz (2013: 3.1Moz).
THE BLOEMHOEK PROJECT
The Bloemhoek project is adjacent to the Beatrix Operation. The geology and estimation models of the project have been restated, incorporating all the geological information from the surrounding areas that was not available to the previous owners. As a result of material changes to the geological model, a gold Mineral Resource of 4.3Moz compared with 14.0Moz in 2013 was declared. A PFS based on the new geological model and investigating the option of accessing the ore body from underground workings at Beatrix will be conducted in 2015.
The Hakkies project is a shallow to medium- depth tabular orebody situated to the northeast of Beatrix. We have restated the geology and estimation models during 2014. As a consequence we are not able to declare a Mineral Resource for this project in 2014. No exploration is planned for the project in 2015.
The Robijn project is a shallow to medium depth tabular orebody situated to the east- northeast of Beatrix, and there are potential synergies with the De Bron-Merriespruit project. We have reviewed the geology and estimation models during 2014, and we are not able to declare a Mineral Resource for this project based on 2014 economic inputs. No exploration is planned in 2015.
The Beisa North project is a shallow to medium-depth tabular orebody situated to the north of Beatrix West Section (4 shaft). There are major synergies between the Beisa North project and the Beisa project at Beatrix West Section. We have confirmed the geological and estimation models of the project during 2014, and we have declared a gold and uranium inferred Mineral Resource of 1.6Moz and 35.4Mlb respectively for this project. The incorporation of this area into the Beisa project will be investigated during 2015.
The Beisa South project is a shallow to medium depth tabular ore body situated to the south of Beatrix West Section. This area is deeper than the Beisa project and alternative access will have to be considered. We have reviewed the geological and estimation models during 2014 and, as a consequence, declared a Mineral Resource for this project. No exploration is planned for the project in 2015.
Sibanye reports its Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves in accordance with the South African Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Code, the updated section 12 of the JSE Listings Requirements and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Industry Guide 7, aligned with guiding principles of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Guided by commitment to corporate governance, the statement has been independently reviewed by CJM Consulting Proprietary Limited (Mineral Resources) and by Royal HaskoningDHV (Mineral Reserves), and has been found to be compliant with the relevant codes and no material shortcomings were identified of the processes by which the Sibanye Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves were evaluated.
The Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are estimates at a point in time, and will be affected by fluctuations in the gold price, US dollar currency exchange rates, operating costs, mining permits, changes in legislation and operating factors. Although all permits may not be finalised and in place at the time of reporting, there is no reason to expect that these will not be granted. However, the length of the approval process for such permits may have an impact on the schedules stated.
All statement figures are managed, and Mineral Resources are reported inclusive of Mineral Reserves, while production volumes are reported in metric tons (t). Gold and uranium are reported separately; therefore no gold equivalents are stated to avoid potential anomalies as a result of year-on-year metal price differentials. All financial models used to determine the Mineral Reserves are based on current tax regulations at 31 December 2014.
The lead competent person designated in terms of South African Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, who takes responsibility for the consolidation and reporting of Sibanye’s Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves and of the overall regulatory compliance of these figures is Gerhard Janse van Vuuren, who gave his consent for the disclosure of the 2015 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve Statement. Gerhard [BTech (MRM), GDE (Mining Eng), MBA and MSCC] is registered with Plato (PMS No 243) and has 27 years’ experience relative to the type and style of mineral deposit under consideration. He is the current Vice President: Mine Planning and Mineral Resource management and is a full-time employee of Sibanye.
The respective business unit based Mineral Resource Managers, relevant project managers and the respective Mineral Resource Management discipline heads have been designated as the competent persons in terms of South African Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves and take responsibility for the reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves for their respective area(s) of responsibility. Additional information regarding these personnel, as well as the teams involved with the compilation of the Mineral Resource and mineral reserve declaration is incorporated in the Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Supplement that will be published in conjunction with this Sibanye Gold Integrated Annual Report 2014.
During 2014, we acquired Wits Gold and the Cooke operations from Gold One. The Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources from these acquisitions were reported under the auspices of the relevant competent persons for each individual project or mine. We have since reviewed geological, estimation and LoM models of the acquisitions, and we now are in a position to declare the Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves in accordance with the Group’s protocols and procedures.